5th December, on this day

63 BC Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations
663 Fourth Council of Toledo takes place.
771 Charlemagne becomes the sole King of the Franks after the death of his brother Carloman
1082 Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona is assassinated.
1301 Pope Boniface VIII's degree Ausculta fili (only nominee)
1349 500 Jews are massacred at Nüremberg in Black death riots
1360 The French Franc is created.
1408 Emir Edigu of Golden Horde reaches Moscow
1448 Bishop Jona of Moscow chosen as metropolitan of Kiev/Intoxication
1456 Earthquake strikes Naples; about 35,000 die
1484 Pope Innocent VIII issues the Summis desiderantes, a papal bull that deputizes Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany and leads to one of the severest witch hunts in European history.
1492 Columbus discovers Hispaniola (El Espanola/Haiti)
1496 Jews are expelled from Portugal by order of King Manuel I
1560 Charles IX becomes King of France on the death of Francis II
1590 Niccolò Sfondrati chosen Pope Gregory XIV
1602 Giulio Caccini's "Euridice" premieres in Florence
1697 First Sunday service is held in the new St Paul's Cathedral built in London
1746 Revolt in Genoa against the Spanish rule.
1757 Battle at Leuthen: Prussian army beats Austrians
1766 James Christie, who founded the world famous auctioneers, holds his first sale in London
1775 At Fort Ticonderoga, Henry Knox begins his historic transport of artillery to Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1792 In Revolutionary France, the start of the trial of King Louis XVI
1792 George Washington re-elected US President, John Adams Vice-President
1797 Napoleon Bonaparte arrives in Paris to take command of the French forces planning the invasion of Britain
1798 Government troops occupy Hasselt
1804 Thomas Jefferson re-elected US President,George Clinton Vice-President
1812 Napoleon Bonaparte deserts his troops retreating from Russia and travels back to Paris alone
1813 Lübeck surrenders to allied armies
1830 Hector Berlioz' "Symphonique fantastique" premieres in Paris
1831 Former President John Quincy Adams takes his seat as member of House of Representatives
1832 Andrew Jackson re-elected President of US, Martin Van Buren Vice-President
1837 Hector Berlioz' "Requiem" premieres
1837 Uprising under William Lyon Mackenzie in Canada
1846 C F Schoenbein obtains patent for cellulose nitrate explosive
1848 President Polk triggers Gold Rush of '49, confirms California gold discovery
1854 Aaron Allen of Boston patents folding theater chair
1859 Dion Boucicault's "Octaroon" premieres in New York, NY
1861 Gatling gun patented
1862 Battle of Coffeeville MS
1863 The rules of Association Football are published
1864 Third Battle of Murfreesboro : Confederate raid mostly unsuccessful
1865 Chincha Islands War : Peru allies with Chile against Spain.
1868 1st American bicycle college opens (New York)
1872 An American ship, the Marie Celeste, is found drifting in the Atlantic. There is no sign of any of the crew members and no clues why they should have deserted the ship
1876 Daniel Stillson (Massachusetts) patents 1st practical pipe wrench
1876 Fire at Brooklyn Theater kills 295, trampled or burned to death
1879 1st automatic telephone switching system patented
1887 Stanley's expedition reaches plateau at Lake Albert, Congo
1890 Berlioz' opera "Les Troyens" premieres in Karlsruhe
1892 Anti-semite Hermann Ahlwardt elected to Germany's Reichstag
1893 1st electric car (built in Toronto) could go 15 miles between charges
1894 Georges Feydeau's "L'hôtel du libre échange" premieres in Paris
1896 Henrik Ibsen's "Kejsor og Galileer" premieres in Leipzig
1904 Russo-Japanese War: The Russian fleet is destroyed by the Japanese at Port Arthur
1905 Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal) becomes PM of England
1906 British government-Balfour resigns
1913 Britain forbids the selling of arms to Ireland
1914 The Italian Parliament proclaims the neutrality of the country.
1918 Oil refinery on Curaçao opens
1925 German government of Luther falls
1926 Sergei Eisenstein's "Battleship Potemkin" debuts
1928 England defeats Australia by record 675 runs at Brisbane
1928 MW Miklas elected President of Austria
1929 1st US nudist organization (American League for Physical Culture, New York NY)
1932 German physicist Albert Einstein granted a US visa
1933 21st Amendment ratified, only amendment adopted to repeal an earlier amendment [18th Amendment (Prohibition)] (5:32 PM EST) 1933. After 13 years, the era of Prohibition in America comes to an end
1934 Reports from Russia of the executions of 66 people found guilty of plotting against the Government of Joseph Stalin
1934 Abyssinia Crisis : Italian troops attack Wal Wal in Abyssinia, taking four days to capture the city.
1935 1st commercial hydroponics operation established (Montebello, CA)
1935 National Council of Negro Women forms by Mary McLeod Bethune (New York NY)
1936 Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Georgian SSR, Kazakhstan SSR and Kirghiz SSR becomes constituent republics of the Soviet Union. Soviet Union adopts a new Constitution under one Supreme Council
1941 Sister Elizabeth Kenny new treatment for infantile paralysis approved
1941 In the Battle of Moscow Georgy Zhukov launches a massive Soviet counter-attack against the German army, with the biggest offensive launched against Army Group Centre.
1941 Great Britain declares war on Finland, Hungary and Romania.
1941 US aircraft carrier Lexington/5 heavy cruisers leave Pearl Harbor
1942 Seyss-Inquart orders students in Nazi-Germany to go work
1943 U.S. Army Air Force begin attacking Germany's secret weapons bases in Operation Crossbow
1944 Allied forces capture Ravenna in Italy
1944 German troops rob all the silver coin in Utrecht
1945 The so-called Bermuda Triangle in the Atlantic Ocean claims more victims as five US Navy bombers -- the 'Lost Squadron' -- from Fort Lauderdale in Florida disappear while flying over the area. No trace is ever found of any of the planes or the pilots
1945 Special Council of Annulment affirms death sentence of Max Blokzijl
1946 President Truman creates Committee on Civil Rights by Executive Order #9808
1947 Joe Louis beats Jersey Joe Walcott in 15 for heavyweight boxing title s
1949 Ezzard Charles defeats Jersey Joe Walcott for heavyweight boxing title
1950 Sikkim becomes a protectorate of India
1950 Ezzard Charles KOs Nick Barone in 11 for heavyweight boxing title
1951 "Dragnet" premieres
1952 London smog of 1952 - worst smog in London ever, 4,000+ die
1955 Historic bus boycott begins in Montgomery AL by Rosa Parks
1956 Approval given for British Togoland and Ghana to become single country
1956 British and French forces begin to withdraw from Egypt at the end of the Suez War
1957 NYC becomes 1st city to legislate against racial or religious discrimination in housing market (Fair Housing Practices Law)
1957 Sukarno expels all Dutch people from Indonesia.
1958 British Prime Minister Harold MacMillan opens Britian's first motorway the Preston bypass
1958 Inauguration of Britain's STD telephone service in Bristol
1960 Ghana drops diplomatic relations with Belgium
1962 United States and Soviet Union agree to co-operate in peaceful uses of outer space
1966 "I Do! I Do!" opens at 46th St Theater NYC for 561 performances
1967 Beatles clothing store "Apple" on 94 Baker Street, London, opens
1967 Benjamin Spock and Allen Ginsberg arrested protesting Vietnam war
1968 Rolling Stones release "Beggar's Banquet" LP
1969 US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1969 Life Magazine reports the My Lai Massacre .
1971 Battle of Longewala : Decisive Indian victory
1972 Australia Labour party wins parliamentary election
1972 Joseph A Walker's "River Niger" premieres in New York NY
1973 Paul McCartney releases "Band on the Run" album
1974 Airport terminal roof collapses killing 17 (Teheran Iran)
1974 "Monty Python's Flying Circus" final episode airs on BBC
1975 NASA launches space vehicle S-196, it failed
1977 Egypt breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, Libya, Algeria, Iraq and South Yemen
1978 Pioneer Venus 1 begins orbiting Venus
1978 European Union establishes EMS, European Monetary System
1978 The Soviet Union signs a "friendship treaty" with the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
1979 Ireland premier Jack Lynch resigns
1980 Bank of Canada's Canadian Currency Museum opens
1981 56th Australian Women Tennis: Navratilova beats Chris Evert (67 64 75)
1981 France performs nuclear test
1982 Seattle University Baptist Church declares sanctuary for Central American refugees
1982 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk USSR
1983 12 killed by a car bomb shattering 9-story building in west Beirut
1983 Dissolution of the Military Junta in Argentina.
1984 French colonies killed 10 Kanaken in New Caledonia
1985 Great Britain performs nuclear test
1988 Shuttle Atlantis launches world's 1st nuclear-war-fighting satellite
1989 France TGV train reaches world record speed of 482.4 kph
1990 Former Noriega aide Luis del Cid pleads guilty
1990 Salman Rushdie, author (ordered to death by Iran for blasphemy), appears in public for 1st time in 2 years
1991 Charles Keating Jr (Lincoln Savings and Loan fraud), found guilty
1991 New York Daily News files for protection under chapter 11
1993 American astronauts from the Shuttle Endeavour leave their spacecraft to begin work on repairing the Hubble space telescope 367 miles above the surface of Earth
1993 Rafael Caldera elected President of Venezuela
1993 The mayor of Wien (Vienna), Helmut Zilk, is wounded by a letter bomb.
1995 Sri Lanka government announces the conquest of Tamil stronghold of Jaffna
2003 Suicide bombers kill at least 46 people in an attack on a train in southern Russia.
2005 The Lake Tanganyika earthquake causes significant damage, mostly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
2005 The Civil Partnership Act comes into effect in the United Kingdom, and the first civil partnership is registered there.
2006 Commodore Frank Bainimarama overthrows the government in Fiji
2007 Westroads Mall massacre : A gunman opens fire with a semi-automatic rifle at an Omaha, Nebraska mall, killing eight people before taking his own life

5th December 2005

Saddam trial told of 'massacre'

Rice defends US terror policies

Five die in Israel suicide blast

5th December 2006

Fiji military coup is denounced

'No extradition' in Russian probe

US plans permanent base on Moon

5th December 2007

Thirteen killed by Kabul car bomb

Car bomb rocks centre of Baghdad

Russia to extend naval exercises

5th December 2008

US job losses at 34-year high

Pakistan city hit by deadly blast

OJ Simpson sentenced to 15 years

5th December 2009

2 peacekeepers killed in Darfur

UN hits back at climate sceptics

'Parmalat founder Calisto Tanzi's art' seized

5th December 2010

8 cyclists die in Italy crash

Foreign troops die in Afghan bomb

Dozens feared buried in Colombia landslide

5th December 2011

Birthdates which occurred on 5th December :

1545 Janus Dousa [Johan van de Does] Dutch politician/poet
1547 Ubbo Emmius [van Embden] Dutch-Frisian humanist/historian
1661 Robert Haley earl of Oxford/English premier (Whig, 1710-14)
1666 Francesco Antonio Nicola Scarlotti composer
1687 Francesco Xaverio Geminiani composer
1697 Carlo Arrigoni composer
1697 Giuseppe de Majo composer
1724 Joseph Friebert composer
1782 Martin Van Buren Kinderhook NY, (D) 8th President (1837-41)
1786 Henry Drummond English banker/apostole
1824 Titian James Coffey Attorney General (Union), died in 1867
1826 John Benjamin Sanborn Brevet Major General (Union volunteers), died in 1904
1830 Christina Rossetti London, poet (Winter Rain, Passing Away)
1839 George Armstrong Custer Major General (Union volunteers, of Little Big Horn fame), died in 1876
1844 John Frederick Bridge composer
1852 Thomas Linnemann Laub composer
1861 Armando V Diaz Italian marshal/minister of War (1922-24)
1863 Paul P Painlevé French PM (1917, 1925), mathematician
1867 Antti Aarne Finnish sociologist (Verzeichnis is der Märchentypen)
1870 Viteslav Augustin Rudolf Novák Slovak composer (Quasi una ballata)
1872 Harry N Pillsbury US chess player
1878 Arrigo Pedrollo composer
1880 Alexander Schmuller Russian/Netherlands violinist/conductor
1884 Evert Cornelis Dutch conductor/pianist
1885 Dirk H W Filarski Dutch painter/lithographer (Bergense School)
1886 Pieter J Old lawyer/minister of Finance/mayor of Rotterdam (1945-52)
1888 Askell Snorrason composer
1890 Fritz Lang Germany, director (M, Metropolis)
1892 Cyril Ring Massachusetts, actor (Body & Soul)
1895 Henriëtte H Bosmans Dutch cellist/pianist/composer
1896 [Lady Huxley] Juliette Baillot author
1896 Willem F M Lampe Dutch ambassador of the Dutch Antilles
1899 Sonny Boy Williamson [Aleck Miller] blues player
19-- Johnny Douglas rocker/record producer/arranger (Kik Tracee, Shirley Bassey, All Saints)
1901 Walter Elias Disney Chicago IL, animator (Mickey Mouse)
1901 Grace Moore US, soprano (One Night to Live)
1901 Hanns Jelinek composer
1901 Werner Heisenberg German physicist/discovered uncertainty (Nobel 1932)
1902 [Steve James] Strom Thurmond (Senator-D/R-SC)
1903 Cecil Frank Powell England, physicist, discovered pion (Nobel 1950)
1905 Otto Preminger Austria, director/producer (Laura, Exodus)
1907 Lin Piau Chinese politician
1910 Abraham L Polonsky US writer/director (Tell them Willie Boy is Here)
1911 Alfred Manessier French painter (leaded windows)
1912 Maisie Fitter editor/conservationist
1915 Margaret Hayes Baltimore MD, actress (Robert Montgomery Presents)
1915 Carl Donnell "Kansas" Fields drummer
1917 Simone Gallimard publisher
1919 Victor Collin Matthews businessman
1921 Peter Hansen Oakland CA, actor (Mr Parkson-Mr Novak, General Hospital)
1921 Alvy Moore actor (Mr Kimball-Green Acres)
1921 George Henderson priest/politician
1923 Tendrjakow writer
1925 Anastasio "Tachito" Somoza Debayle President of Nicaragua (1967..79)
1926 George Savalas Bronx NY, actor/brother of Telly (Kojak)
1927 Rama IX [Bhumibol Adulyadej] Massachusetts, king of Thailand (1946- )
1932 Little Richard [Wayne Penniman] Macon GA, rocker (Tutti Frutti, Lucille)
1933 Bernard van Beurden Dutch composer/music educator
1934 Joan Didion US novelist/journalist (Salvador)
1935 Calvin Trillin author (New Yorker)
1938 [John] J J Cale Oklahoma City OK, rock guitarist (After Midnight)
1939 Frederik van Rossum composer
1939 Horst Bastian writer
1941 David Wilson English contractor/multi-millionaire
1942 Randy Kirby Chicago IL, actor (Randy-Girl From UNCLE)
1944 Jeroen Krabbé Amsterdam Netherlands, actor (Fugitive)
1945 J W "Corkey" Fornof New Orleans, stunt coordinator (Octopussy)
1945 Jocelyn Italian entertainer
1946 Andy Kim [Andrew Joachim] rocker
1946 José Carreras Barcelona Spain opera tenor (I Lombardi, Three Tenors)
1947 Jim Messina rocker (Loggins & Messina-Your Mamma Don't Dance)
1947 Jim Plunkett San Jose CA, NFL quarterback (New England, Oakland)
1947 Jugderdemidiin Gurragcha 1st Mongolian space traveler (Soyuz 39)
1949 Bruce E Melnick New York NY, Commander USCG/astronaut (STS 41, STS 49)
1949 Pamela Blair actress (Loving)
1949 Lanny [Jerry Lanston] Wadkins Richmond VA, PGA golfer (1972 Sahara)
1949 Lewis Arlt Kingston NY, actor (Littlest Victims, Ken-Another World)
1951 Morgan Brittany [Suzanne Cupito] Hollywood CA, actress (Katherine-Dallas)
1951 Thomas Warren Purtzer Des Moines IA, PGA golfer (1977 Glen Campbell)
1952 Bobby Barth rocker vocalist/guitarist (Axe)
1953 Jonathan Lewis trombonist (Atlantic Star-Touch a 4 Leaf Clover)
1953 Larry Zbyszko [Living Legend Whistler], wrestler (WCW/AWA/NWA/WWF)
1954 Kathryn Young LPGA golfer
1957 Art Monk NFL wide receiver (Washington Redskins, Philadelphia Eagles)
1957 Charlene Morett Darby PA, field hockey left wing (Olympics-bronze-1984)
1959 Nikki Gianulias Vallejo CA, bowler (LPBT Rookie of Year 1979)
1959 Shirley Furlong San Antonio TX, LPGA golfer (1988 Lady Keystone Open)
1960 Jack Russell rocker (Great White-Twice Shy)
1960 Andrzej Chylinski New York NY, 50k walker (Olympics-26th-96)
1960 Darryl James Kamloops British Columbia, Canadian Tour golfer (Glenco-1992, 93)
1960 John Felton Kyogle Australia, canoeist (Olympics-96)
1960 Les Nemes rock bassist (Haircut 100)
1962 Connie Needham Newton Anaheim CA, actress (Elizabeth-8 is Enough)
1963 Carrie Hamilton actress, Carol Burnett's daughter (Fame)
1963 Bob Friend Pittsburgh PA, Nike golfer (1991 Fort Wayne Open)
1964 Pablo Morales Chicago IL, butterfly swimmer (Olympics-3 gold/2 silver-1984, 92)
1966 Bruce Deacon Ottawa Ontario, marathoner (Olympics-96)
1966 Joseph Barbara New Symrna FL, actor (Joe Carlino-Another World)
1966 Linda Hunt LPGA golfer
1966 Niege Dias Brazil, tennis star
1966 Patricia Kaas French pop singer (Mademoiselle Chant)
1967 Ann Schirman San Diego CA, WPVA volleyballer (National-17th-1994)
1967 René Shuman [Shumans] rockabilly-bandleader/singer
1968 Lisa Marie [Sliwa] New Brunswick NJ, actress (Mars Attacks)
1968 Margaret Cho actress/comedienne (Face/Off)
1968 Rhett Hall NFL defensive tackle (Philadelphia Eagles)
1969 Mark Dekker Zimbabwe cricket opening batsman (1993- )
1970 Heather Crickard Miss Oklahoma USA (1996)
1970 Kevin Haller Trochu, NHL defenseman (Philadelphia Flyers)
1970 Susan Sloane Lexington KY, tennis star
1970 Thomas Smith NFL cornerback (Buffalo Bills)
1971 Bryan Schwartz NFL linebacker (Jacksonville Jaguars)
1971 Joe Fleming CFL defensive end (British Columbia Lions)
1971 Marrio Grier fullback (New England Patriots)
1972 Cliff Floyd Chicago IL, outfielder/1st base (Montréal Expos)
1972 Kevin Sally Richmond Hill Ontario, archer (Olympics-96)
1972 Randolph Ross Shelby NC, 110 meter hurdler
1972 Roderick Mullen NFL defensive back (Green Bay Packers-Superbowl 31)
1972 Stanislav Jasecko hockey defenseman (Team Slovakia 1998)
1973 Corissa Yasen WNBA forward/guard (Sacramento Monarchs)
1973 Shalom Harlow Toronto Ontario, model (House of Style, Harper's Bazaar)
1977 Michelle Marie Jefferson Miss Wyoming Teen USA (1996)
1989 Ross Bagley actor (Nicky-Fresh Prince Of Bel Air)
1994 Emily Marie Estefan daughter of Gloria & Emilio


Deaths which occurred on 5th December:
1212 Derek II of Are Bishop of Utrecht (1197-1212), dies
1244 Johanna of Constantinople countess of Flanders (1205-44), dies
1355 Jan III duke of Brabant/Limburg, dies
1560 François II King of France (1559-60), dies at 16
1594 Gerardus Mercator Flemish philosopher/cartographer, dies at 82
1663 Severo Bonini composer, dies at 80
1675 John Lightfoot English theologist (Horae Hebraicae), dies at 73
1745 Christoph Forster composer, dies at 52
1758 Johann Friedrich Fasch composer, dies at 70
1770 James Stirling Scottish mathematician (Formula of Stirling), dies at 78
1784 Phillis Wheatley 1st important black poet in America, dies in Boston
1791 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composer, dies in Vienna, Austria, at 35
1799 Robert Kimmerling composer, dies at 61
1818 Bruno Daalberg/Anonymus Belga Secretary of High Council Adel, dies at 60
1835 August von Platen writer, dies at 39
1842 MJ Auguste Vestrius French ballet dancers, dies at 82
1853 Johann Peter Heuschkel composer, dies at 80
1859 Louis Poinsot French mathematician/instrument maker, dies at 82
1870 Alexandre Dumas writer (The Three Musketeers, The Count of Monte Cristo), dies at 68
1886 Peter Hofstede de Groot Dutch reformed theologist, dies at 84
1891 Pedro II of Alcantara emp of Brazil (1831-89), dies
1902 Henry Stephen Cutler composer, dies at 78
1916 Hans Richter composer, dies at 73
1922 Samuel Muller Fzn Dutch historian/archivist, dies
1925 Wilhelmina E Drucker [Lensing] Dutch feminist, dies at 78
1928 Johannes F "Johan" Bakker Sr actor/husband of Truus Soete, dies at 61
1935 Frans [MJ François] Erens literary (Years Gone By), dies at 78
1938 Christina "Dina" Koudijs-van Appeldoorn pianist/composer, dies at 54
1940 Jan Kubelik composer, dies at 60
1942 Buck Jones Hollywood's last cowboy hero actor (Headin' East), buried
1951 "Shoeless" Joe Jackson of baseball's black sox scandal, dies
1955 Paul Harvey actor (Calamity Jane, Heldorado, Jamboree), dies at 73
1958 Ferdinand Bruckner writer, dies at 67
1959 K S Duleepsinhji cricketer (12 Tests for England, 995 runs), dies
1963 Herbert H Lehman (Governor-D-NY), dies
1963 Karl Amadeus Hartmann composer, dies at 58
1964 Remy Angenot Flemish actor (Tailor Wibbel), dies at 70
1966 Sylveer Maes Belgian bicylist, dies at 57
1968 Fred Clark actor (Zotz, Auntie Mame), dies of liver ailment at 54
1971 Hugh Wakefield actress (Blithe Spirit), dies
1974 Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman tennis player (US Open 1909-11), dies at 87
1974 Henry Wadsworth actor (Applause, Ceiling Zero), dies at 72
1974 Pietro Germi actor/director (Serafino, Climax), dies at 60
1975 Jimmy Nervo actor (Frozen Limits), dies
1980 Don Taylor cricketer (3 Tests for New Zealand 1947-56, 159 runs), dies
1983 Robert Aldrich director/producer (Last Sunset), dies at 65
1986 Carmol Taylor country songwriter, dies at 53 of cancer
1987 "Fat" Larry James US drummer (Fat Larry's Band-Zoom), dies at 38
1989 John M Pritchard British conductor, dies at 68
1990 Steven Shaw dies at 25
1991 Richard Speck mass murderer, dies a day before his 50th birthday
1991 Aad Mansfield soccer player/trainer (ADO/Feyenoord/FC Utrecht), dies
1991 Jill Browne dies at 54
1992 Hilary Tindall actress (Dominique-Max Headroom), dies of cancer at 54
1992 Sergei Aleksandrovich Yemelyanov Russian cosmonaut, dies at 41
1993 Alexandre Trauber Hungarian/French set designer (Harem), dies at 87
1993 Arthur Staal Dutch architect (Shell Tower Amsterdam), dies at 86
1993 Douglas Hopkins guitarist (Gin Blossoms), dies of gun shot at 32
1994 Harry Horner Czechoslovakian/US set designer/director (Our Town), dies at 84
1994 Richard Brian Waring Barton-Chapple writer, dies at 69
1994 Ronald Ridout school textbook author, dies at 78
1995 Robert Charles Evans mountaineer/doctor, dies at 77
1995 Robert Parrish film director editor/actor (Casino Royale), dies at 79
1995 Victor Collin Matthews businessman, dies on 76th birthday
1996 Peter Hall folklorist/musician, dies at 60
1996 Wilf Carter country singer, dies at 91
1997 Colin Franklin doctor, dies at 67
1997 Daphne Fielding socialite/writer, dies at 93

Link 1/ On this day 5th December

Link 2/ On this day 5th December

Link 3/ On this day 5th December